Nikkei down over 10% on Tuesday. 10%! And Nikkei did extremly poorly on Monday as well. Poor Japan, I hope they will be spared of more misery now and that damages can be mended effectively. It is comforting to see the international support for Japan.
Back to the stock exchanges however, one can’t help but notice that solar stocks have skyrocketed the last two days.
While the world markets have been down two days in a row, solar stocks have bucked the trend and skyrocketed as much as 20% in two days. And the momentum keeps building up.
The worlds largest producers of solar panels, Suntech Power and Yingli Green have shot through the roof today, with Yingli Green up from 10.50 on Friday to 12.25 today, Tuesday.
Solar stocks have been upgraded, nuclear power companies, such as Hitachi, that built the nuclear reactors in Japan have been hammered and downgraded, and even oil companies are being downgraded at the time of this writing.
Could this finally become the moment for solar companies to shine, not just economically as they already have over the last few years, but shine with a solid position ideologically and become immune to political instability from now on?
Ryanair boss Michael O’Leary tried to take the papers to the TV news reporter in today’s press conference in Oslo, Norway.
The company is being sharply criticized for its poor working conditions, including from an anonymous Rygge-employee who stands out in Moss Avis today – several trade unions are even boycotting the company.
NRK Østfold reporter Lars Håkon Pedersen experienced it all up close.
NRK’s reporter showed Michael O `Leary an employment contract that she wanted him to comment on. She tried to view a page that did not show the name of the contract owner. O `Leary took the contract out of her hands and tried to look at it,” says Pedersen.
The reporter was able to pull the document back again, so that O `Leary could not see who owned the contract.
What he saw was that it was not an employment contract, but a training contract for six months, “said Pedersen.
The incident happened at a press conference where Ryanair stated that they will have a fourth based plane in place at Moss Airport Rygge in March-April next year.
Conditions resembeling slave labor in Ryanair
The same day that Ryanair held the press conference, an employee spoke out about what he calls slave-like working conditions. The person who spoke to Moss Avis will remain anonymous. “Ryanair is firing people on the day over smaller issues than this. None of us are allowed to speak with the press,” said the employee, which tells of an hourly wage of 16 euros for the time the plane is in the air.
Ryanair again rejects all criticism
All Ryanair staff can theoretically join a union, but it is true that we do not negotiate with unions. We are instead in a dialogue with representatives of our own employees, “said McNamara to Moss Avis.
He denies that the employees will only get paid for the time they are in the air, and that one gets fired for getting too late, if it is not repeated after the warnings.
So what is the purpose of this Iraq inquiry? To mock democracy? But even that is rather costly.
Anyway, no change will come from this. Why does media even cover this farce?
Meanwhile, some other religious terrorist named Osama bin Laden, a mass murderer who owns his fortunes to oil, makes public complaints about other people polluting and benefitting from, oil!
Stupidity has no limits.
Welcome to 2010!
The Norwegian subway system in Oslo caught fire again on Saturday.
Nobody was reported to be harmed by the regular incident.
Norway is famous for having the least well functioning public transport system in the world. If you are thinking about going to Oslo for the Eurovision Song Contest 2010, you may want to bring your own fire extinguisher.
Pat Robertson, famous millionaire, war lover, and demagogue, has done it again. Even if we are only 14 days into the new year, the demagogue has won the 2010 award as the most selfish and unsympathetic bastard alive, by stating that Haiti deserves the death and catastrophe it is experiencing. Simultaneously he may win the 2010 award for insanity, although he is still in ties with Sean Hannity on that one.
It is time for everyone to react to this outrageous statement by that inhuman creep we have pestering the earth. Do your moral duty and let Robertson have it!
The Greek explanation behind their economic success and ability to organise themselves:
Meanwhile over in Switzerland:
Anthrax has been found in two heroin users from Glasgow – one of whom has died in hospital.
NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde said the man died in the city’s Victoria Infirmary on Wednesday. A woman being treated there has also tested positive.
A second man with “serious soft tissue infections” is being tested at Glasgow Royal Infirmary.
Police believe contaminated heroin or a contaminated cutting agent may be responsible for the infections.
Police Security Service (PST) have arrested two people due to suspected violations of the Arms Act. Oslo police assisted in the arrest.
This information has come forward in connection with a investigation with PST, PST reports on their websites.
Together with information from previous criminal cases and the actual security situation in Oslo this week, the PST found it appropriate to apprehend these two at this time, said PST.
Attorney John Christian Elden confirms that Arfan Bhatti is one of the two arrested.
Arfan Bhatti was in 2006 accused of having planned a terrorist act. He was later acquitted of this.
Bhatti was arrested at 17 o’clock today. It was not made any seizures or new discoveries in connection with the arrest. It is solely a question of risk elimination before the Obama visit. “Bhatti was prepared for the arrest”said John Christian Elden.
Elden says Bhatti asked for permission to leave Oslo at the Obama-visit. But he was not, according to the lawyer, allowed to by the security police.
The other arrested shall, according to police, a 31 year old acquaintance of Bhatti. The two accused will for now be held in police custody.
Not familiar with the Nobel-threats.
PST is not aware of there being any concrete threats to the peace prize ceremony, or events in connection with the deal.
Information manager Martin Bernsen in PST would not say anything to further if the case is connected with other matters. He confirmed that the Oslo police assisted by the arrest.
Bersen adds that the PST currently not want to comment beyond what’s in the press release.
Neither the Oslo Police wants to comment on the matter.
The Justice Department would not comment on the arrests tonight, they refer to the PST.
Police attorney Thomas Blom in PST has prepared the preliminary charges against Bhatti and his friend. Blom has also led the investigation of the so-called terror case against Bhatti.
Barack Obama is coming to Norway on Thursday morning to receive the Nobel Peace Prize. The security system around Obama and the events he will attend, is enormous.
Formally, it is the police in Norway which is responsible for the president’s security as long as he is in Norway. They receive assistance from the military and the U.S. Secret Service, where a vanguard is already in Oslo to be here until 11th December. They have also obtained assistance from the Swedish and Danish police on the equipment side.
Taken from NRK, translated by Google translate
There are strict safety rules while U.S. President Barack Obama is in Oslo to receive Nobel Peace Prize.
Still think the police will be able to balance the need for security around what is considered the world’s biggest terrorist targets, and a city where residents can walk, and also participate in countersign. of the Nobel Peace Prize.
Chief of Staff John Fredriksen, who is responsible for planning around Obama’s visits, said police deliberately have opted out the most extreme forms of hedging.
We were sealed off all roads and the whole city, but try to make as many time-limited measures as possible. That is, we nullify barricades and temporary ban as quickly as we can, both at the traffic-related movements of the president or program records, “said Fredriksen.
– But even if we try to limit the scope of the measures, it will not be as if he is not here, “said Fredriksen.
He points out that the plans are laid out from the current threat picture.
– If the situation in the world would change, and we perceive it as affecting the safety of Obama, the Norwegian plans change then, said Chief of Staff.
Formally, the police in Norway which is responsible for the president’s security as long as he is in Norway. They receive assistance from the military and the U.S. Secret Service, where a vanguard now is in Oslo to be here until the 11 December. They also obtains assistance from the Swedish and Danish police on the equipment side.
This is largely what will happen in the capital – such plans are at this time.
It created five so-called security zones in the center of Oslo. These are places where the president will stay.
Within these there will be restrictions over shorter or longer time period, that is, closed streets, parking prohibitions, limited access to the area and control of persons who will be in the hold.
On Obama places to visit, it will be implemented access control. The sites will be searched for bombs and unwanted persons.
Some shops and catering businesses are asked to lock in longer or shorter periods, others have only received instructions how they should behave.
This is the advice the police have given the people who must reside in buildings that are in the security zones:
Stay away from windows. Windows is not a suitable looking place.
The windows should be closed and the curtains less.
Do not use camera or telephoto lens through the windows.
Stay on the roof terraces and roofs are prohibited.
Use any evasions if you decide to print the given time.
There will be a large and visible array of armed policemen around and inside the security zone. On the strategic roof around where Obama will stay, it will be placed observation posts with sharpshooters, who are specially trained to work in such situations.
Sharpshooters were positioned on the roof of the Oslo City Hall when President Bill Clinton attended the Middle East meeting in 1999.
Trash bins and other potential hiding places for bombs are about to be cleared away. The job is to weld again manhole covers to prevent illegal use of sewage tunnels have already started.
There is parking ban and poor accessibility for private motorists in some ormåder. Public transport will be as close to normal these days, even though the trams and buses in the periods will detour roads.
Grand Hotel will be fenced in as president Barack Obama is in the country.
Safety Zone at the Grand
The largest zone is of course around the Grand Hotel, where Obama, wife Michelle and family members will live together with other employees during their stay.
Due to the announced participation in the climate summit in Copenhagen, it is confirmed that the president arrives in Norway on the afternoon of Wednesday 9 December.
The hotel will be the base for much of the stay. The White House has booked the entire hotel for two days. Other people outside the American vanguard must be out in plenty of time for that number of rooms will be cleaned and secured, and the hotel re-scanned from the basement to the attic.
Grand-quarter will be cleaned, cleared and cordoned off several hours before the president is on his way to Norway. The immediate area around the hotel is fenced in, as long as the president is in Oslo, and the guard is great.
In front of the hotel set up a security tent where all that will be checked into the hotel as the security checkpoint at an airport.
Absolutely everything and everyone must go through this, also the food site will use. The hotel’s rear and side entrances are closed, and all goods deliveries stopped.
Grand Café keeps closed to late afternoon Friday 11 November. The same goes for many of the places in the hotel.
Karl Johan blocked off by Akersgata / parliament for traffic.
Businesses located within the safety zone will be open. But the shopkeeper waits two very quiet days, when customers need to settle on to explain what ærende they have and must go through a metal scanning.
Employers have submitted lists of employees who will be on the job those days for a security check.
The traditional torchlight procession which usually runs from Youngstorget through parliament and down Karl Johan are routed on, so it will go around the Parliament, and down to Eidsvolls space – where it is still included in the plans that Obama will come out and say hello from the balcony at the Grand Hotel, brought behind bullet-proof glass, before the Nobel Banquet takes to.
The security measures will last until the president has left the capital Friday 11 December, if the current plans are followed.
The area around Oslo’s City Hall will be tightly guarded.
The ceremony will take place Thursday 10 December 13 at Oslo City Hall. Next to the Grand Hotel, this is the most comprehensive security zone.
After the plan is the only Nobel Committee, the Norwegian king and Crown Prince couple and the president and first lady as well as some special guests that will be received via the main entrance of City Hall. The rest of the guests must check in to be guided by the seaside – well before the ceremony begins.
City Hall is closed by the visitor a couple of days before. After that time, only those with accreditation that enters.
Fritjof Nansen space (the courtyard at City Hall) is closed by, the same with the Town Square on the waterfront. Stortingsgata be closed to traffic for part of, including the evening in connection with a torchlight procession. The tram line that goes over the Town Hall Square, will be stopped from midnight on 10 December until at 19:00.
City Hall is very well guarded from both ground and air, before and during the ceremony.
Also in and around this safety zone has shops, companies and establishments received instructions on how to deal with before and during the event. The large Christmas market between City Hall and pier must close.
Employees who have office space in the buildings around City Hall, will have to go through security checks such as the Grand-quarter.
– Many of the companies and the people who work there, are used to this from time to time, so it tends to forløpe quite problematic, “said Chief of Staff John Fredriksen.
The president is going to be run between Grand Hotel and City Hall, and kortesjen will affect accessible public in the streets around in a shorter time period.
The security measures shall be repealed when the event in City Hall is over, and Obama is well wrapped up in another location.
Barack Obama will take the Nobel Institute on a brief visit to sign that he received the Peace Prize and be presented with the proof of the prize money of 10 million Swedish kronor.
After that NRK has reason to believe your visit at the Nobel Institute to take place on Wednesday evening.
Nobel Institute is located diagonally opposite the U.S. embassy, and both the department and the other environment are accustomed to extensive security measures.
After the visit to Obama approaching, it will be set up barricades around the department. This will affect Henrik Ibsen’s street / Drammensveien / Inkognitogata and Parkveien.
The roads will be blocked for both public transport and private motorists as long as the president is staying there.
Large parts of the Palace Square will be blocked off.
Also around the castle, which lies a stone’s throw away from the Nobel Institute, it created a security zone. President Barack Obama and first lady Michelle is in an audience with King Harald and Queen Sonja in the City Hall before the ceremony starts.
Parts of the castle square is blocked off with fences, from the crossing and the entrance from Karl Johan Street / Frederick Street and up to the main entrance.
During Bill Clinton’s visit in 1999, was one side of the castle place reserved for the spectators – as Clinton took the time to say hello.
If the security measures around the U.S. President is sharpened with Obama, and Nobel audience is private and not a state visit with their ceremonies, it is highly uncertain whether they will be waiting to see something more than black cars and some mind.
It is now certain that the meeting with Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg on the morning of the 10th December, before the ceremony at Oslo City Hall.
The meeting takes place probably at the Prime Minister in the government quarter.
Here, too, will be bekvoktning and visible security measures for a short period. But the device in the building is well used to receive heads of state, so this will follow the fixed security procedures.
Also some of the streets around the quarter will be affected the hours the U.S. President is in the neighborhood.
Obama is transported from the airport brought in his armored limousine with its American and Norwegian kortesje is E6 from Gardermoen to the most obvious choice, although there are a number of alternative routes.
But considering veistandarden on the rest of the road network in Romerike in winter conditions and the U.S. brought cars possibly year-round deck, is the main artery that sannsynligste first choice.
E6, with possible detours posted, will be closed in one or both directions in a given period of time. In 1999, entry ramps and tilkjørselsveier closed between President procession passed.
The police confirmed that they have a number of alternative routes in and out of Oslo clear, but keeps it open, which is chosen.
– The choice is entirely up to kortesje boss. He has the authority to make the provisions he believes are nødvedig, until the last second, said Chief of Staff Fredriksen.
The roads – Oslo
The same will happen in Oslo when the presidential entourage on the road.
– Some routes will be closed for shorter or longer periods. We are trying to shut down as low as we can. We operate a so-called punctually, that is, we open the affected routes as quickly as possible, “said Fredriksen.
It is not to come in from some city streets will be closed during all or part of the visit. It applies as mentioned earlier, part of Karl Johan, Parliament Street and Town Square.
Air Space over Oslo and parts of Eastern imposed restrictions when President plane Air Force One to meet the Norwegian fighter out of the territorial in Skagerrak and escorted into the Norwegian airspace and up to Gardermoen.
He carried on to Oslo with the purpose-built Sikorsky helicopter EH10, nicknamed “Marine One”, hold Norwegian military helicopters up close by.
Airspace will be monitored very closely. Several of the Norwegian fighter planes moved to Eastern Norway, for enhanced preparedness. After the NRK.no know, betting Mon on a combination of the starting ready aircraft on the ground and airborne emergency (plane in the air).
NATO sets with one or more of its E-3A-surveillance. The aircraft has, according to NATO capabilities to detect possible targets in a range of 400 kilometer when the aircraft is located at 30,000 feet.
Defense will also together with the police have more helicopters in the air, to monitor what is happening on the ground in the capital. In Sweden, it says two police helicopters “stand by”, to move to Norway if needed.
It will fly the helicopters and light aircraft in a given zone of the capital. These must use the mandatory air corridors outside the no-fly zone. It’s only ambulance helicopters in addition to air material from the police and defense that will stay in forbudssonen.
For route air traffic will change from the normal flytraseene very small, and except for an hour on arrival and departure of Air Force One, deemed it not with big delays for air traffic.
The restrictions in the airspace lasts as long as the president is in the country and in Norwegian airspace.
Taken from NRK, translated by Google translate
December 5, 2009
Obama Shifts His Visit to Last Day of Climate Conference
By JOHN M. BRODER
WASHINGTON — Citing progress on many issues, the White House said Friday that President Obama had shifted the date he would appear at the United Nations climate change conference in Copenhagen to Dec. 18, the last scheduled day.
In a written statement, it said the president believed that he could have a more decisive impact by appearing at the end of the 12-day conference, when as many as 100 other heads of state are scheduled to show up, rather than next Wednesday as originally planned.
The original date was timed to coincide with the president’s trip to Oslo on Thursday to receive the Nobel Peace Prize.
Administration officials still acknowledge that the meeting in Denmark will not produce a binding international treaty, as had earlier been hoped, but rather an interim political deal and a promise to reconvene next year to work toward a formal treaty. The White House said it believed that it was still possible to conclude a “meaningful Copenhagen accord” in which all countries pledged to take immediate action to address climate change.
In the past two weeks, the United States, China and India have all announced targets for reducing their emissions of greenhouse gases.
The White House said Mr. Obama had discussed the matter this week with the leaders of France, Britain, Australia and Germany. Many world leaders and environmental advocates had been urging the president to attend later in the conference as a symbol of his commitment to a successful outcome.
“Based on his conversations with other leaders and the progress that has already been made to give momentum to negotiations, the president believes that continued U.S. leadership can be most productive through his participation at the end of the Copenhagen conference on Dec. 18 rather than on Dec. 9,” the White House statement said.
“There are still outstanding issues that must be negotiated for an agreement to be reached, but this decision reflects the president’s commitment to doing all that he can to pursue a positive outcome,” the statement added.
Among the issues still under consideration is a “fast-start” fund of roughly $10 billion to be financed by wealthy nations to help poorer nations adapt to a changing climate and convert to less-polluting forms of energy. There is no agreement yet on how the fund should be structured and who should pay into it, but it is clear that this is one area in which Mr. Obama thinks he can be useful.
“The United States will pay its fair share of that amount and other countries will make substantial commitments as well,” the White House said. “In Copenhagen, we also need to address the need for financing in the longer term to support adaptation and mitigation in developing countries.
“Providing this assistance is not only a humanitarian imperative — it’s an investment in our common security, as no climate change accord can succeed if it does not help all countries reduce their emissions,” the statement said.
The “ClimateGate” affair – the publication of e-mails and documents hacked or leaked from one of the world’s leading climate research institutions – is being intensely debated on the web. But what does it imply for climate science? Here, Mike Hulme and Jerome Ravetz say it shows that we need a more concerted effort to explain and engage the public in understanding the processes and practices of science and scientists.
“ Practising scientists know that they do not simply follow a rulebook to do their science, otherwise it could be done by a robot ”
As the repercussions of
reverberate around the virtual community of global citizens, we believe it is both important and urgent to reflect on what this moment is telling us about the practice of science in the 21st Century.
In particular, what is it telling us about the social status and perceived authority of scientific claims about climate change?
We argue that the evolving practice of science in the contemporary world must be different from the classic view of disinterested – almost robotic – humans establishing objective claims to universal truth.
Climate change policies are claimed to be grounded in scientific knowledge about physical cause and effect and about reliable projections of the future.
As opposed to other ways of knowing the world around us – through intuition, inherited belief, myth – such scientific knowledge retains its authority by widespread trust in science’s reassuring norms of objectivity, universality and disinterestedness.
These perceived norms work to guarantee to the public trustworthy scientific knowledge, and allow such knowledge to claim high authority in political deliberation and argumentation; this, at least, is what historically has been argued in the case of climate change.
What distinguishes science from other forms of knowledge?
On what basis does scientific knowledge earn its high status and authority?
What are the minimum standards of scientific practice that ensure it is trustworthy?
For an open, enquiring and participative society, these are questions that have become much more important in the wake of ClimateGate.
They are also questions that scientists should continually be asking of themselves as the political and cultural worlds within which they do their work rapidly change.
Doing science in 2010 demands something rather different from scientists than did science in 1960, or even in 1985.
How science has evolved
The understanding of science as a social activity has changed quite radically in the last 50 years.
The classic virtues of scientific objectivity, universality and disinterestedness can no longer be claimed to be automatically effective as the essential properties of scientific knowledge.
Instead, warranted knowledge – knowledge that is authoritative, reliable and guaranteed on the basis of how it has been acquired – has become more sought after than the ideal of some ultimately true and objective knowledge.
“ The public… may not be able to describe fluid dynamics using mathematics, but they can recognise evasiveness when they see it ”
Warranted knowledge places great weight on ensuring that the authenticating roles of socially-agreed norms and practices in science are adequately fulfilled – what in other fields is called quality assurance.
And science earns its status in society from strict adherence to such norms.
For climate change, this may mean the adequate operation of professional peer review, the sharing of empirical data, the open acknowledgement of errors, and openness about one’s funders.
Crucially, the idea of warranted knowledge also recognises that these internal norms and practices will change over time in response to external changes in political culture, science funding and communication technologies.
In certain areas of research – and climate change is certainly one of these – the authenticating of scientific knowledge now demands two further things: an engagement with expertise outside the laboratory, and responsiveness to the natural scepticism and desire for scrutiny of an educated public.
The public may not be able to follow radiation physics, but they can follow an argument; they may not be able to describe fluid dynamics using mathematics, but they can recognise evasiveness when they see it.
Where claims of scientific knowledge provide the basis of significant public policy, demands for what has been called “extended peer review” and “the democratisation of science” become overwhelming.
Extended peer review is an idea that can take many forms.
It may mean the involvement of a wider range of professionals than just scientists.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), for example, included individuals from industry, environmental organisations and government officials as peer reviewers of early drafts of their assessments.
More radically, some have suggested that opening up expert knowledge to the scrutiny of the wider public is also warranted.
While there will always be a unique function for expert scientific reviewers to play in authenticating knowledge, this need not exclude other interested and motivated citizens from being active.
These demands for more openness in science are intensified by the embedding of the internet and Web 2.0 media as central features of many people’s social exchanges.
It is no longer tenable to believe that warranted and trusted scientific knowledge can come into existence inside laboratories that are hermetically sealed from such demands.
A revolution in science
So we have a three-fold revolution in the demands that are placed on scientific knowledge claims as they apply to investigations such as climate change:
To be warranted, knowledge must emerge from a respectful process in which science’s own internal social norms and practices are adhered to
To be validated, knowledge must also be subject to the scrutiny of an extended community of citizens who have legitimate stakes in the significance of what is being claimed
And to be empowered for use in public deliberation and policy-making, knowledge must be fully exposed to the proliferating new communication media by which such extended peer scrutiny takes place.
The opportunity that lies at the centre of these more open practices of science is to secure the gold standard of trust.
And it is public trust in climate change science that has potentially been damaged as a result of the exposure of e-mails between researchers at the University of East Anglia’s Climatic Research Unit (CRU) and their peers elsewhere.
The disclosure and content of these private exchanges is only the latest in a long line of instances that point to the need for major changes in the relationship between science and the public.
By this, we mean a more concerted effort to explain and engage the public in understanding the processes and practices of science and scientists, as much as explaining the substance of their knowledge and how (un)certain it is.
How well does the public understand professional peer review, for example, or the role of a workshop, a seminar and a conference in science?
Does the public understand how scientists go about resolving differences of opinion or reaching consensus about an important question when the uncertainties are large?
We don’t mean the “textbook” answers to such things; all practising scientists know that they do not simply follow a rulebook to do their science, otherwise it could be done by a robot.
Science is a deeply human activity, and we need to be more honest about what this entails. Rather than undermining science, it would actually allow the public to place their trust more appropriately in the various types of knowledge that scientists can offer.
What should be done?
At the very least, the publication of private CRU e-mail correspondence should be seen as a wake-up call for scientists – and especially for climate scientists.
The key lesson to be learnt is that not only must scientific knowledge about climate change be publicly owned – the IPCC does a fair job of this according to its own terms – but that in the new century of digital communication and an active citizenry, the very practices of scientific enquiry must also be publicly owned.
Unsettling as this may be for scientists, the combination of “post-normal science” and an internet-driven democratisation of knowledge demands a new professional and public ethos in science.
And there is no better place to start this revolution than with climate science.
After all, it is claimed, there is no more pressing global political challenge than this.
But might this episode signify something more in the unfolding story of climate change – maybe the start of a process of re-structuring scientific knowledge?
It is possible that some areas of climate science have become sclerotic, that its scientific practices have become too partisan, that its funding – whether from private or public sectors – has compromised scientists.
The tribalism that some of the e-mails reveal suggests a form of social organisation that is now all too familiar in some sections of business and government.
Public trust in science, which was damaged in the BSE scandal 13 years ago, risks being affected by this latest episode.
A Citizen’s Panel on Climate Change (CPCC)?
It is also possible that the institutional innovation that has been the IPCC has now largely run its course.
Perhaps, through its structural tendency to politicise climate change science, it has helped to foster a more authoritarian and exclusive form of knowledge production – just at a time when a globalising and wired cosmopolitan culture is demanding of science something much more open and inclusive.
The IPCC was designed by the UN in the Cold War era, before the internet and before GoogleWave.
Maybe we should think about how a Citizen’s Panel on Climate Change might work in today’s world, as well as a less centralising series of IPCC-like expert assessments.
If there are serious ecological and social issues to be attended to because of the way the world’s climates are changing – as the authors of this article believe – then scientists need to take a long hard look at how they are creating, validating and mobilising scientific knowledge about climate change.
Climate science alters the way we think about humanity and its possible futures.
It is not the case that the science is somehow now “finished” and that we now should simply get on with implementing it.
We have decades ahead when there will be interplay between evolving scientific knowledge with persisting uncertainty and ignorance, new ways of understanding our place in the world, and new ways of being in it.
A more open and a better understood science process will mean more trusted science, and will increase the chances of both “good science” and “good policy”.
“Show your working” is the imperative given to scientists when preparing for publication to peers.
There, it refers to techniques.
Now, with the public as partner in the creation and implementation of scientific knowledge in the policy domain, the injunction has a new and enhanced meaning.
Mike Hulme is professor of climate change in the School of Environmental Sciences at the University of East Anglia, and author of Why We Disagree About Climate Change
Dr Jerome Ravetz is an independent scholar affiliated to the Institute for Science, Innovation and Society (InSIS) at Oxford University